There are number of social and personal factors that help us to understood digital exclusion but the the relationship between digital and social exclusion remains poorly understood. Helsper and galacz 2009 attempt to map out the relationship between digital and social exclusion showing that there are a number of different views regarding the interaction of both fields. For instance, digital participation can help to mitigate social exclusion by introducing disadvantaged groups access to the benefits of internet use. However as long as social inequalities remain offline (e.g. in terms of education) these will translate into inequalities online as those who are socially excluded are less likely to have access to the internet and lack digital skills. Norris 2001 and rodger 2003 identify an S-shaped cure model to theorise the relationship between digital and social exclusion. rodger 2013 shows will catch up over time in terms of their access to ICT's and that will help there to overcome their disadvantage, however Norris 2001 argues that the maximum uptake of ICT's among the socially excluded will remain lower than the average population so inequalities will remain. Digital participation may help to overcome social exclusion however digital participation in and of itself will not tackle social exclusion as inequalities remain in terms of access and types of internet use.
Helsper 2008 explores the relationship between social exclusion and digital exclusion, highlighting that 9% of the adult population suffer deep social exclusion and have no meaningful engagement with the internet (Helsper 2008: 11). This corresponds with analysis of the 1999 Scottish household survey, which shows that the excluded are less likely to use ICTSs (Fitch 2002).
individuals who are socially isolated are less likely to participate in the advanced networking aspects of ICTs and individuals who are economically disadvantaged are less likely to use ICTs for government and financial services that would provide them access to the services they need (ibid:9). This suggests that those who suffer from particular social exclusions are least likely to benefit from the ICT applications that many help them tackle their disadvantage (Helsper 2012). People who are social excluded are likely to remain socially excluded.
Further studies have studies have emphasised the relationship between digital and social exclusion by exploring children's' engagement with ICT's (Helsper and Livingstone 2007). Jackson 2006 has identified a relationship between digital exclusion and educational attainment showing that children from socially deprived backgrounds who use the internet have higher scores on standardised tests, which suggests the digital exclusion has the potential to exacerbate social inequalities.
According to the technology- enhanced learning research programme 2012 to prosper in the 21st centaury, people need to be confident digital collaborators and communications and reflecting this many schools are incorporating digital technologies into the classroom to create more interactive environments. However research by valentine et al 2002 highlights some resistance to ICT use among children based on whether this is seen deviant or normal identities among young people. This suggests that as with adults, digital exclusion among children is dependent both on access to resources as well as children's social relations.
Haddon 2000 explores the relationship between digital exclusion and social exclusion by examining the impact of ICT use on single Parents and the young elderly. Studies have previously identified the prevalence of loneliness and economic deprivation among single parents and the young elderly, which make an interesting case study shows that engagement with ICTs is dependent on the perception of how useful they are and the extent to which people in their existing social networks use ICT's. Given that ICT use is dependent on prior engagement there can be a low willingness to access services online potentially leading to there exclusions (haddon 2000). A recent study conducted by the Equality and human rights commission 2015 has show that two thirds of older people are living alone and at potential risk of social isolation, it is worthwhile to study the impact of digital exclusion on these groups to examine the relationship between social and digital exclusion.
In particular, koss et al. 2014 discuss the impact of digital participation in minimising social exclusion in terms of the impact on loneliness and depression among older people. Barnes et al 2006 in the 'social exclusion of older people: evidence from the first wave of the English longitudinal study of ageing (ELSA) final report' identify that three times likely to be socially excluded. Furthermore, a study conducted by the phoenix centre 2009 shows that depression by the 20% lover in retired adults who use the internet that reflects the effects of digital participation, particularly the use of social networking on mental health and wellbeing. The number of people living of depression, with largest effect on people living alone.